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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 219-226

Dermoscopy of congenital dermatoses in pediatric age group: An observational study

1 Department of Dermatology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hita Hemant Mehta
115, Skin OPD, First Floor, New Building, Sir T Hospital, Near Jail Road, Bhavnagar, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpd.IJPD_130_18

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Objective: To study dermoscopic (DS) patterns of various congenital dermatologic conditions affecting pediatric age group. Background: DS helps to fill gap between histopathology and gross examination, especially in children as they are noncooperative for invasive procedure. It also helps in early detection of malignant change. Methodology: One hundred and forty-nine children with congenital dermatoses were enrolled in a study conducted from August 2017 to January 2018 in dermatology outpatient department (OPD). After proper history and examination, DS images were captured using DermLite DL IV and stored for analysis. Results: One hundred and forty-nine DS images of 22 congenital dermatoses were studied including 80 males and 69 females. Homogenous pattern (80%) was the most common pattern observed in melanocytic nevi (26). Mongolian spots (25) had greenish hue (100%) on DS. Hemangioma (13) and port wine stains (5) showed cherry red vacuoles and red dots against a pink background, respectively. Criss-cross, rhomboid, and lamellate pattern of scales were observed in DS of congenital ichthyosis (8). We also analyzed DS features of bullous and perforating disorders, syndromes, few rare miscellaneous conditions, and hair disorders. Conclusions: DS is a non-invasive diagnostic tool which enables visualization of deeper structures of the skin which are not seen with naked eyes. Melanocytic nevus, if disorganized, indicates increased risk for melanoma in situ. Pattern of scales on DS helps to classify ichthyosis. Regular brown dots suggest wart-like infection in epidermodysplasia verruciformis. DS of monilethrix and short anagen syndrome helps in differentiating from other hairs shaft disorders. Although time consuming, DS is easy to perform, especially in children and it aids to confirm the diagnosis.

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