|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 261-262
Pachyonychia congenita: Affecting three generations!
Rohit Singla1, Pihu Sethi2, TG Savitha3, Amrinder Jit Kanwar2
1 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Ambala, India
2 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, School of Medical Sciences and Research, Sharda Hospital, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||28-Jun-2018|
Dr. Pihu Sethi
D-16, 2nd Floor, Chander Nagar, Ghaziabad - 201 011, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Pachyonychia congenita is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease that primarily presents as nail dystrophy and dyskeratosis of skin and mucous membranes. A 32-year-old female presented with thickening of the nails and thickening of both heels. Her father showed pincer nails with periungual thickening of skin and fissures with focal plantar keratoderma. Her two sons had similar nail changes.
Keywords: Focal palmoplantar keratoderma, genetic disorder, nail dystrophy, pachyonychia congenita
|How to cite this article:|
Singla R, Sethi P, Savitha T G, Kanwar AJ. Pachyonychia congenita: Affecting three generations!. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol 2018;19:261-2
|How to cite this URL:|
Singla R, Sethi P, Savitha T G, Kanwar AJ. Pachyonychia congenita: Affecting three generations!. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2022 May 26];19:261-2. Available from: https://www.ijpd.in/text.asp?2018/19/3/261/206050
| Introduction|| |
Pachyonychia congenita (PC), first described by Muller in 1904, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease that primarily presents as nail dystrophy and dyskeratosis of skin and mucous membranes. The signs and symptoms of this condition usually become apparent within the first few months of life. Only 450 cases have been reported in literature. Two types of PC have been described - Type 1 - Jadassohn–Lewandowsky and Type 2 - Jackson–Lawler type. We are reporting Type 1 PC in three generations of a family.
| Case Report|| |
A 32-year-old female presented with gradually progressing thickening of the nails since birth, pain, and thickening of both heels since the age of 2 years. She gave a history of recurrent paronychia. She had received prolonged antifungal and antibiotic therapy with no improvement. There was no itching, hyperhidrosis, blistering, natal teeth, or ocular symptoms. She was born to second degree consanguineous marriage. All 20 nails showed thickening and yellow-gray discoloration of nail plates; hypercurvature on the transverse axis of the nail plates giving a pinched shape to the nails. Subungual hyperkeratosis, onycholysis, and complete dystrophy were also noted in few nails [Figure 1]. Fingernails were more involved than toenails. KOH preparation was negative, and biopsy from heel was suggestive of keratoderma.
|Figure 1: Pedigree chart and nail changes in patient and her father (original)|
Click here to view
Her father showed pincer nails with periungual thickening of skin and fissures with focal plantar keratoderma [Figure 2]. Her two sons had subungual hyperkeratosis which was more prominent in younger son. Elder son had a pilosebaceous cyst on the left forearm [Figure 3].
|Figure 2: Focal plantar keratoderma in patient and her father (original)|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Pincer nails in patient's father, subungual hyperkeratosis, and pilosebaceous cyst in her son (original)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Mutations in the KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT16, and KRT17 genes can cause PC.,, PC type 1 is the more common variant, characterized by hypertrophic nail dystrophy (pachyonychia). It may be accompanied by painful paronychia, symmetric focal palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK), oral leukokeratosis, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, follicular keratoses, and laryngeal involvement. PC Type 2 is characterized by almost all clinical features of PC Type 1 with natal or prenatal teeth, numerous steatocystomas, and other variety of cysts (epidermal inclusion cysts, pilosebaceous cysts, and vellus hair cysts) and PC Type 3 with corneal dyskeratosis., PC also has a fourth variant, known as PC tarda, in which symptoms develop in second to the third decade of life. PC is often confused with Clouston's syndrome which presents with alopecia, diffuse PPK, deafness, and structural abnormalities such as syndactyly and polydactyly along with above-mentioned symptoms. Alopecia could not be appreciated in our patient, PPK was localized to pressure points, and hearing was normal.
Radical excision of the nail, nail bed and nail matrix, and skin implantation at the site of the removed nail is the only known effective treatment. Topical emollients with salicylic acid or other keratolytic agents and systemic retinoids can be used for skin lesions.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Moger G, Shashikanth MC, Chandrashekar KT, Kurein S. Pachyonychia congenita tarda: A rare case report. Contemp Clin Dent 2013;4:409-11.
] [Full text]
Agarwal P, Chhaperwal MK, Singh A, Verma A, Nijhawan M, Singh K, et al.
Pachyonychia congenita: A rare genodermatosis. Indian Dermatol Online J 2013;4:225-7.
] [Full text]
Wilson NJ, O'Toole EA, Milstone LM, Hansen CD, Shepherd AA, Al-Asadi E, et al.
The molecular genetic analysis of the expanding pachyonychia congenita case collection. Br J Dermatol 2014;171:343-55.
Covello SP, Smith FJ, Sillevis Smitt JH, Paller AS, Munro CS, Jonkman MF, et al.
Keratin 17 mutations cause either steatocystoma multiplex or pachyonychia congenita type 2. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:475-80.
Duarte GV, Cunha R. Do you know this syndrome? Pachyonychia congenita. An Bras Dermatol 2011;86:1222-7.
Feinstein A, Friedman J, Schewach-Millet M. Pachyonychia congenita. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;19:705-11.
Vaccaro M, Guarneri F, Barbuzza O, Guarneri C. Pachyonychia congenita tarda affecting only the nails. Dermatol Online J 2008;14:12.
van Steensel MA, Jonkman MF, van Geel M, Steijlen PM, McLean WH, Smith FJ. Clouston syndrome can mimic pachyonychia congenita. J Invest Dermatol 2003;121:1035-8.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]