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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 205-211

Contact dermatitis in pediatric age group: Indian scenario


Department of Dermatology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Yasmeen Jabeen Bhat
Department of Dermatology, Government Medical College, Karan Nagar, Srinagar - 190 010, Jammu and Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpd.IJPD_17_18

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Contact dermatitis was previously considered to be rare in children except some forms of irritant contact dermatitis which were seen commonly in children. However, nowadays, there are an increasing number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) being reported in children due to increased exposure to a variety of allergens at an earlier age. Various predisposing factors which influence the occurrence of contact dermatitis include age, sex, atopy, and presence of any concomitant skin disease. Nickel has been identified as leading cause of ACD in children. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersal, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsam of Peru, and colophony. Clinical presentation in children is similar to that in adults with eczema of the hands, feet, wrists, face, forehead, scalp, eyelids, earlobes, neck, axilla, trunk, thighs, and anogenital area being seen. Disseminated lesions can as well be seen. When ACD is suspected, patch testing is the gold standard diagnostic procedure. However, patch testing in children differs from adults as some technical difficulties are encountered in children due to their smaller test area and frequent movements. However, the general opinion stands that children can be patch tested with the same methods and patch test concentrations as adults. For the prevention of recurrence, allergen elimination should be the aim of treatment; however, in many cases, it is not possible to completely eliminate the allergen from the patients environment. Topical steroids and calcineurin inhibitors form the mainstay of treatment in most cases.


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