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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 214-216

Pattern of dermatoses among adolescents attending a tertiary care center in Northeast India


Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India

Date of Web Publication7-Jun-2017

Correspondence Address:
Vanlalhriatpuii Hmar
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal - 795 001, Manipur
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2319-7250.206082

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  Abstract 

Background: The objective of this study was to ascertain the pattern of dermatoses among adolescents attending the Dermatology Outpatient Department (OPD) at a tertiary care center in Manipur, Northeast India.
Methodology: The retrospective study was conducted among 3850 patients belonging to adolescent age group (10–19 years) from January to December 2014. They constituted 20.18% of the total OPD attendance during the study.
Results: Male to female ratio was 1:1. The study group was further divided into three categories based on age: early (10–13 years), middle (14–16 years), and late adolescence (17–19 years). Majority belonged to mid (36.3%) and late adolescence (36.64%) age groups. The dermatoses identified were classified into 13 broad categories. Infections were the most common dermatoses (25.5%), followed by sebaceous gland disorders (22.72%), eczemas (17.45%), infestations (17.03%), and urticaria (4.5%). Among infections, fungal infection (53.25%) was most common, followed by bacterial (24.59%) and viral infections (22.15%).
Conclusion: It was concluded that infections, infestations such as scabies and pediculosis, eczemas, and sebaceous gland disorders such as acne vulgaris were common dermatoses seen in the adolescent age group.

Keywords: Adolescents, dermatoses, Northeast India


How to cite this article:
Hmar V, Singh N, Devi TB, Bachaspatimayum R, Subba DM, Verma K. Pattern of dermatoses among adolescents attending a tertiary care center in Northeast India. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol 2017;18:214-6

How to cite this URL:
Hmar V, Singh N, Devi TB, Bachaspatimayum R, Subba DM, Verma K. Pattern of dermatoses among adolescents attending a tertiary care center in Northeast India. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Sep 26];18:214-6. Available from: http://www.ijpd.in/text.asp?2017/18/3/214/206082


  Introduction Top


Skin disorders are fairly common among adolescent age group (10–19 years). The impact on quality of life can be enormous during this psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. The physiological changes that occur in the skin during puberty and adolescence have several effects, and this may also be a reason for seeking medical advice in many cases. Some skin disorders such as acne vulgaris may first appear during adolescence and can have negative impact on self-image and psychological development of the adolescent. Adolescents may also have a tendency not to seek medical care but depend on local remedies or commercially available products. Common skin conditions among adolescents include acne vulgaris, seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, etc.[1] This study was conducted to ascertain the pattern of dermatoses among adolescents attending the Dermatology Outpatient Department (OPD) at a tertiary care center in Manipur, Northeast India.


  Materials and Methods Top


A retrospective descriptive study was conducted from all patients belonging to adolescent age group (10–19 years) attending a tertiary care center, Imphal, from January to December 2014. The study group was further divided into three categories based on age: Early (10–13 years), middle (14–16 years), and late adolescence (17–19 years). The dermatoses identified were classified into 13 broad categories.


  Results Top


The study group consisted of 3850 patients between the ages of 10 and 19 years. They constituted 20.18% of the total OPD attendance during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:1. Majority belonged to mid (36.3%) and late adolescence (36.64%) age groups. Majority were Hindus (64.9%), followed by Muslims (23.9%) and Christians (9.61%). [Table 1] shows the various demographic characteristics of the study population.
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of study group (n=3850)

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Infections were the most common dermatoses (25.5%), followed by sebaceous gland disorders (22.72%), eczemas (17.45%), infestations (17.03%), and urticaria (4.5%). Among infections, fungal infection (53.25%) was most common, followed by bacterial (24.59%) and viral infections (22.15%). Other dermatoses included pigmentary, papulosquamous, connective tissue, congenital, hair, and nail disorders. [Table 2] shows the frequency of various dermatoses in the study group.
Table 2: Pattern of dermatoses (n=3850)

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[Table 3] shows the common dermatoses based on age group. Sebaceous gland disorders and eczemas were both most common in mid-adolescent age group (14–16 years).
Table 3: Common dermatoses in different age groups

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  Discussion Top


Children as well as adolescents are constantly exposed to various sources of infections and infestations at school and home and in the neighborhood. The environment and living conditions play a major role in acquiring dermatoses of infectious nature.

In this study, infections (25.5%) due to bacterial, fungal, and viral etiologies constituted the most common dermatoses. This is consistent with the findings of other studies conducted in developing countries including India. Other common dermatoses included infestations such as scabies and pediculosis, eczemas, and sebaceous gland disorders mainly acne vulgaris.[2],[3] Among the infective causes, fungal (13.6%) was the most common etiological factor, which is again similar to the findings of studies conducted in other parts of India.[4]

Sebaceous gland disorders, mainly acne vulgaris, constituted 22.2% (n = 875) of the study group. Further, majority of these adolescents belong to mid (n = 381) and late adolescence (n = 411). Hence, in this study, acne vulgaris was most common from ages 14 to 19 years, which is consistent with other studies in school-going children, Kashmir, India.[5] Many in this age group have tendency to delay treatment due to ready availability of many over-the-counter medications and commercial products. Furthermore, previous treatment at primary health care centers may delay the time in which they present to a tertiary care hospital.

Eczemas were seen in 672 (17.45%) of the study group. This group included patients presenting with any type of endogenous or exogenous eczemas of any duration. Further categorization and quantification of eczemas were not performed in this study.

Infestations including scabies and pediculosis were seen in 656 (17.03%) children and adolescents. It was more commonly seen in early adolescents (n = 252) as compared to late adolescents (n = 190). As this age group is exposed to other children in schools and other places in the community, the possibility of exposure to contacts could contribute to this.

Other less common dermatoses included urticaria, papulosquamous, hair and nail disorders, and pigmentary dermatoses.


  Conclusion Top


It was concluded that infections, infestations such as scabies and pediculosis, eczemas, and sebaceous gland disorders such as acne vulgaris were common dermatoses seen in adolescent age group.

Financial Support and Sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Millington GW, Graham-Brown RA. Skin and skin disease throughout life. In: Burns T, Breathnach SM, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors. Rook's Textbook of Dermatology. 8th ed. UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010. p. 41.1-41.18.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Memon KN, Soomro RA, Ansari MS. Pattern of skin diseases in patients visiting a tertiary care health facility at Hyderabad, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2011;23:37-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Neupane S, Pandey P. Spectrum of dermatoses among pediatric patients in a teaching hospital of Western Nepal. NJDVL 2012; 10(1):20-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sharma S, Bassi R, Sodhi MR. Epidemiology of dermatoses in children and adolescents in Punjab, India. J Pak Assoc Dermatologists 2012;22:224-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Yaseen U, Hassan I. Prevalence of various skin disorders in school going children of Kashmir valley of North India: A cross sectional study. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol 2013;14:67-72.  Back to cited text no. 5
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
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